Questionnaires can add a quantitative view and are useful especially in a large team where it is not possible to interview everyone.
We can ask healthcare professionals if they do or don’t do certain behaviours. It might be important to reassure them of anonymity and that there is no right or wrong answer here. Also, to help forgetfulness, you can ask people to report within a certain short time frame (perhaps in one day, if that is appropriate for the particular behaviours) and you can ask multiple times and take an average.
In general, to get a measure of behaviour we will ask two questions: a) how many times has this behaviour been indicated or possible (this is usually how many patients with a particular indication have you seen) and b) in how many of these cases did you do the specified behaviour. For example, where the behaviour of interest is antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections you might ask: a)“how many patients did you see in the last 5 days with upper respiratory tract infections?” and then b) “for how many of these patients did you prescribe antibiotics?”. Percentage behaviour would then be (b/a) x 100.
For understanding determinants, we may conduct a literature search to understand the likely barriers and facilitators or use those explored through interviews or focus groups, and construct a COM-B questionnaire, asking participants for their views on a likert scale, such as this question for assessing social opportunity:
If I don’t prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections, my patients will be upset with me
Strongly disagree 1 — 2 —– 3 —– 4——5—–6—–7 Strongly agree
These would then be totalled to better understand views on capability, opportunity, and motivation. Validated questionnaires on a range of topics already exist and development follows certain scientific processes, so you may wish to get help from a statistician or a health psychologist for this.